When we originally introduced the Ensigma Series4 RPU family, we mainly focused on the support for different connectivity standards such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. However, there were also several mentions of the Ensigma’s capability to support broadcast TV and radio standards. In this two part article, I would like to reveal some details about a next generation broadcast TV standard called DVB-S2X and how we plan to support it using our Ensigma RPU architecture. In a follow-up post, I will then delve into how we support radio broadcast standards (DAB and HD Radio)
The figure below shows the evolution of the digital and mobile TV broadcast standards as well as the applications that have been driving these standards. The DVB-S2X is the latest of the video broadcast standards currently promoted by DVB Project.
An introduction to DVB-S2X
DVB-S2X – why now?
With higher speeds and more efficient satellite technology, there are larger volumes of data, video and voice being driven over satellite. Some of the applications driving this include the rise of Ultra HD, the rapid adoption of H.265 (also known as HEVC) and other highly efficient video codecs, IP trunking and backhauling, multiservice networks over satellite and so on.
To give you an idea of how much pressure these new standards are putting on the existing infrastructure, a 4K video stream encoded with H.264 for instance requires data rates of up to 40 Mbps.
DVB-S2X – extensions
DVB-S2X is an extension to the DVB-S2 standard with key performance related enhancements. Some of these include:
- Low roll off, smaller carrier frequency and advanced filters
These specifications directly translate to a gain in bandwidth and reduced interference resulting in upto 15% efficiency improvements compare to DVB-S2.
- Modulation & Coding (MODCODS) , FEC upgrades
The new MODCOD schemes (64, 128, 256 APSK) help drive higher throughput applications such as Ultra HD with AVC coding. In combination with the improved FEC, the efficiency gains can be upto 51%.
- Channel Bonding
The channel bonding facilitates merging of transponder capacities thus providing extra gain of upto 12% for 3 bonded channels. This is specifically needed for UHDTV with data rate requirements of upto 40 Mbps.
- Additional Standard Scrambling Sequences
The addition of six new scrambling codes as opposed to one default code in DVB-S2 helps mitigate Co Channel Interference (CCI)
Ensigma RPU support for DVB-S2X
The Explorer RPU has been enhanced to add support for DVB-S2X. Two new hardware peripheral blocks the Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) and De-mapper (DEMAP) help implement
- Header Detection and Decode
- Phase/Gain Tracking
The output from the new blocks is written back to the Global Memory (GRAM) which is used by other accelerator blocks such as the Error Correction Processor. The Modulation & Coding Processor (MCP) continues performing signal processing tasks such as acquisition, tracking and equalizer adaptation.
The RPU will initially support all the normative features for Broadcast services listed in the table below. In the next releases, it is designed flexibility to support optional features such as
- Higher Order Constellations (64, 128 and 256 APSK)
- Channel Bonding
To summarize, The Ensigma RPUs are flexibly designed to address the needs of high-speed connectivity, TV demodulation and radio demodulation standards.
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